Chromosomal analysis / Karyotyping

Reduced fertility or infertility is a major problem in Indian cattle and buffaloes. Reproductive failure in animals may be because of several reasons including poor feeding management, poor quality of AI etc. However, it can be also due to genetic reasons e.g. chromosomal abnormalities which are usually associated with reduced fertility / infertility, embryonic loss, foetal waste and internal or external genital malformation. Chromosomal abnormalities account for a substantial losses in animals production and quite a few bulls reared for breeding cannot be used effectively due to problems related to fertility. The chromosomal abnormalities can affect a large population in two ways: i) it can be transmitted to large population through Artificial Insemination programme and ii) it can cause repeat breeding problems in females because of embryonic losses, and poor semen quality in breeding bulls. All these animals can be karyotyped even at calf hood stage. Subsequently, abnormal animals can be culled to avoid the risk of transmission and minimize the cost on rearing of abnormal animal.

Genetic Diseases

everal genetic disorders in animals, controlled by recessive genes, are the cause of concern worldwide. With the wide use of AI, these genetic diseases can spread to a large population as animals carrier of the disease look normal. These disorders are HF breed specific. In India, where HF animals are extensively used for crossbreeding programmes, it has become necessary to screen all HF and their crossbreds to minimize the risk of spreading these diseases among future bulls and bull mothers. The diagnosis is based on molecular techniques. The cases of carriers for various genetic diseases could be much higher than what are reported if regular screening of genetic diseases is performed for every breedable animal.

  • Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD)
  • Bovine Citrullinaemia
  • Deficiency of Uridine MonoPhosphate Synthase (DUMPS)
  • Factor XI deficiency syndrome
  • Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM)

Marker Assisted Selection in Animal breeds

Most of the economically relevant traits for animal production (birth weight, weaning weight, growth, reproduction, milk production, carcass quality, etc.) are complex traits controlled by many genes, and they are additionally influenced by the environment. The sequence of a gene can differ between individuals. These differences are called genetic variants or alleles that may regulate the production of different quantities. If an allele is positively related to the production trait is known as favourable allele/gene. Tests have been developed to identify whether an animal is carrying a segment of DNA that is positively or negatively associated with the trait of interest.

  • Kappa Casein
  • Beta-lactoglobulin
  • Diacylglycerol O–acyltranferase 1 (DGAT1)
  • Prolactin
  • Pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1)
  • Bovine Leptin